Testing & Certifications
There are several widely used and accepted tests which are presented as indicators of the health and environmental impacts, or “healthiness” of a coating, as well as a multitude of third party, and industry certifications. Despite this large offering, all of these tests have limitations in scope, allowances and accuracy. For example, tests may have one or more of these limitations:
- The test reports only a subset of VOCs (for example those with a boiling point within a certain temperature range, or only those associated with the production of smog) but does not identify other harmful chemicals that are off gassing.
- The test reports VOCs (or a subset of VOCs) but does not identify other harmful chemicals that are present but are not VOCs (solids for example).
- The test, or certification, allows for an amount of toxic ingredients which need not be reported even if the product “passes” the test.
- The certification allows for “proprietary” ingredients to be undisclosed, or not reported if they represent a small enough percentage of the total mass of the other ingredients. The test is not capable of measuring a coating’s ingredients, or VOCs, to an appropriate level of accuracy, such that it can provide definitive results.
- The test method is defined in such a way as to limit its value to the consumer – for example testing a liquid coating that has dried out, at which point the majority of the solvents have already evaporated.
- The test covers only the base products and not additives (such as pigments) which will inevitably be incorporated by the consumer.
As a company we have submitted products for many of these tests (the results for several of which are referenced below) and will continue to undertake more. We are happy to report these while acknowledging their limitations.
VOC Test Results
We have formulated our coatings in an effort to provide consumers with as safe a product as we can, while maintaining a premium quality performance. In addition, we tint all of our products in-house, which ensures color accuracy and the use only of our zero VOC1, no glycol pigments. Other paint manufacturers either ship to third party stores for tinting, or carry a variety of tint formulations in their own store. With this type of arrangement, it is very difficult to guarantee the use of only a particular tint (zero VOC for example).
1Conforms to CDPH 01350 (VOC emissions test taken at 11, 12, & 14 days for classroom and office use). Learn more about VOCs and our commitment to healthier paints here and here.
For over twenty five years our customers, many of whom are extremely sensitive to the harmful chemicals found in traditional products, have complimented us on how easily they can handle our products. While it is often necessary for us to provide results for commonly used (if potentially misleading) industry tests (particularly those measuring VOCs) our emphasis will continue to be to avoid the harmful solvents and chemicals found in traditional paints, and to fully disclose the ingredients that we do use. In this way consumers and materials experts will be best able to assess the suitability of our product for their use.
Contaminants are ubiquitous and water is the “universal solvent”. As such, unintentionally added VOC and other compounds (which could even come from tap water that has been certified by the EPA as safe to drink) can be introduced in trace amounts into water based liquids. These contaminants would then be recorded in tests which have been designed to identify very small amounts of VOCs. There is no product, nor test methodology which can truly have and record zero VOCs, or contaminants, because the simple existence of a water based liquid in the real world will result in its contamination.
As a result, consumers should not anticipate that a product labeled “Zero VOC” will contain absolutely no measurable VOCs (or contaminants). Typically, this claim is qualified by the test measure used to verify the zero value, a threshold above zero grams per liter which is allowable, a list of VOCs which are exempted, or a statement indicating it applies only to intentionally added ingredients. Given the shortcomings of all the commonly used tests, consumers are best served by an abundance of test results (from various methodologies), the identification of any recorded VOCs and the amount measured (so that it is possible to determine any risks posed) and a complete list of ingredients intentionally added to the product.
Consumers want to know what is in a product
Despite this extensive testing, our emphasis as a company has always been on trying to exclude harmful chemicals from our products, in the expectation that this philosophy will ultimately lead to safer products. In particular, we have led the transparency movement in the coatings industry, becoming the first and only company to provide Declare labels and third party verified HPDs. If consumers (and materials experts) have complete knowledge of a product’s ingredients they will be better able to determine its health and environmental impacts. We remain the only manufacturer to list all the ingredients used in all their products.
Test certificates for individual products can be found by visiting the specific product page, and then clicking the tab “Data Sheets”. For example on page: http://www.ecospaints.net/ecos-interior-eggshell-wall-paint.html.
Acknowledging the caveats outlined above concerning all of the regular industry tests, the following is an explanation and interpretation of the results achieved by our products - which are recorded on the individual product pages. For further information or clarification, please either contact us by email here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
ECOS’ Certifications and Test Results
Declare labels are issued to products disclosing ingredient inventory, sourcing and end of life options. Declare labels are based on the Manufacturers Guide to Declare, administered by the International Living Future Institute (ILFI). We identify all our ingredients, which can then be checked against public databases of chemicals which describe their effects on human health. For example, see a copy of one of our Declare labels here, and a description as to how they are derived here.
The Health Product Declarations (HPDs)
The HPD Open Standard provides a consistent, and transparent format to accurately disclose the material contents, and associated health information of a building product. Our HPDs are third party verified and include 100% of our ingredients. There are some instances where a supplier has not allowed us to fully identify one of their proprietary ingredients (we cannot change that) but it is health screened, identified and recorded like all the other ingredients. An example of our HPDs can be found here, and the HPD Collaborative organization details can be found here.
EPA Method 241
This method is applicable for the determination of volatile matter content, water content, density, volume solids, and weight solids of paint, varnish, lacquer, or other related surface coatings. The test is widely reported in the industry despite the fact that it is recognized by the EPA itself as a poor measure of VOC levels in waterborne coatings which have very low levels of VOCs2. As such, a coating with a recorded measure of 5g/l or below of VOCs can be labeled “Zero VOC”. Furthermore, reported VOCs are only those which contribute to smog formation (many are exempt), and the overall measurement does not qualify individual VOCs by how harmful they are. The level of VOCs reported is not a proxy for the healthiness or otherwise of a product which could contain toxic chemicals which are either exempt VOCs, or which do not vaporize. An example of one of our products which recorded as having a negative VOC result (which is not actually possible) can be found here. Since the known test variation is so significant, the reverse can be true with products that are actually zero VOC recording positive results. Consumers should be aware of the limitations of this test and the potential for a false understanding of the “healthiness” of a product3 here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
The standard test method for determination of the weight percent individual volatile organic compounds (with an initial boiling point of less than 250oC) in waterborne air-dry coatings by gas chromatography. This test reports VOC content, with a minimum recordable threshold of <1 g/l, which would be considered zero. ASTM states that this test is about ten times better than EPA Test Method 245 and that the test performance, compared with EPA Test Method 24, improves further as the VOC content approaches zero (as with our coatings). EPA Test Method 24 allows for 5g/l VOC content for a “zero” VOC product. Differences between test methods can include, for example, chemicals like Texanol6 (an ester alcohol described as the premier coalescent for latex paint) which has an initial boiling point of 254oC and is variously recorded as a VOC and not a VOC for individual test methods. Our products do not contain Texanol. An example of our test results for ASTM D6886 can be found here. Test results for individual products can be found on their respective product pages. For further information or clarification, please either contact us by email here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
EPA Method 8260B
This method determines most volatile organic compounds with boiling points below 200oC by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Method 8260 is used to determine volatile organic compounds in a variety of solid waste matrices.7 This method is applicable to nearly all types of samples, regardless of water content, including polymeric emulsions. The test identifies sixty six specific compounds, including some of the most problematic chemicals commonly found in paints such as: benzene, chlorobenzene, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethene, toluene, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride and xylene. In addition to these named compounds, Method 8260 can be used to quantitate most volatile organic compounds that have boiling points below 200oC. Using standard quadrapole instrumentation and the purge-and-trap technique, measurement limits are approximately 5µg/kg and paint can be analyzed in its wet form. An example of our test result for EPA Method 8260B can be found here. Test results for individual products can be found on their respective product pages. For further information or clarification, please either contact us by email here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
This test applies to many children's toy products such as crayons, chalk, paint sets, modeling clay, coloring books, pencils, and any other product used by children to produce a work of visual or graphic art. The test is to determine the absence of substances which have the potential of causing a chronic hazard. The designation "conforms to ASTM D-4236" means all of the potentially hazardous components of the product have been clearly labeled on the product packaging. Some common components, such as solvents, cause allergic reactions or are dangerous if they touch the skin or the eyes, others can cause respiratory problems if over-inhaled. The ASTM D-42368 standard requires these components to be listed on packaging, and assesses a product for toxicological expectations. The ECOS test results (which include the pigments too) showed no expectation of oral toxicity, skin irritation, respiratory tract irritation, corrosion, or chronic toxicity. Test results for individual products can be found on their respective product pages. For further information or clarification, please either contact us by email here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
California Department of Public Health Test 01350. Standard method for the testing and evaluation of volatile organic chemical emissions from indoor sources using environmental chambers.9 This test is performed on samples which have been allowed to “cure” for a period of fourteen days at which time they are tested for emissions – which are categorized as total VOCs, target VOCs (which are considered more harmful) and aldehydes (including formaldehyde). Performance requirements include a limit for the total VOCs measured, with specific upper thresholds for VOCs which are considered to be of concern. This test measure is better suited to new construction where buildings could remain unoccupied for several weeks following completion, and where VOCs would be able to disperse before the building was inhabited. For renovation projects, where a building will be occupied either during, or shortly after work is completed, emissions measured at fourteen days are less helpful – particularly as many products have peak emissions as they are applied and dry. The ECOS test results (which were all a pass) showed no measurement of the chemicals of concern and trace levels of additional VOCs - which it is recognized can be introduced as part of the product handling and the test process which requires the introduction of air that is known to contain a limited amount of VOCs. An example of our test result for CDPH 01350 can be found here. Test results for individual products can be found on their respective product pages. For further information or clarification, please either contact us by email here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
European standard EN 71 specifies safety requirements for toys. Compliance with the standard is legally required for all toys sold in the European Union. The standard has been published in 13 parts, with EN 71-3 relating to the total migration of toxic metals (Arsenic, Mercury, Selenium, Barium, Lead, Antimony, Chromium, and Cadmium) in a material to determine if it is safe for use in children’s toys – which could be chewed, or placed in a child’s mouth. ECOS products were shown to be suitable for use in children’s toys with respect to EN 71-3. Test results for individual products can be found on their respective product pages. For further information or clarification, please either contact us by email here, or telephone us toll free on 1-866-587-3586. We will happily answer your questions.
The Juvenile Product Manufacturer’s Association (“JPMA”) is an organization dedicated to promoting the industry and the safe use of juvenile products. It offers a stringent certification and approval process, for determining the suitability of products for use by and around juveniles. The Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA) is a non-profit association representing approximately 250 manufacturers who make 95 percent of the prenatal to preschool products in the U.S. market. Each of the JPMA Certification Programs is foundationally built on an ASTM standard with federal and state requirements layered on, as well as many of the major retailer requirements.11
British Allergy Foundation
The British Allergy Foundation12 evaluates products through testing carried out by independent laboratories to protocols which have been created for the Seal of Approval by leading allergy specialists, specifically to benefit the sufferers of allergy, asthma, sensitivity, and intolerance. The main endorsement is a seal of approval which provides the reassurance that a product has been scientifically tested to prove it is efficient at reducing/removing allergens from the environment of allergy and asthma sufferers or the products have significantly reduced allergen/chemical content. Testing is carried out by an independent laboratory.